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When can you use a Binary Option? Are Binary Options a scam? This section introduces some basic concepts for the specification, in preparation for Section 5. Advanced Concepts later in the document. When two software systems need to exchange data, they need to use terminology that both systems understand. As an analogy, consider how two people communicate. Both people must use the same language and the words they use must mean the same thing to each other. This might be referred to as the context of a conversation.

Verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations have many attributes and values that are identified by URIs [ RFC ]. However, those URIs can be long and not very human-friendly. In such cases, short-form human-friendly aliases can be more helpful. This specification uses the context property to map such short-form aliases to the URIs required by specific verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations. In JSON-LD, the context property can also be used to communicate other details, such as datatype information, language information, transformation rules, and so on, which are beyond the needs of this specification, but might be useful in the future or to related work.

For more information, see Section 3. Verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations MUST include a context property. Though this specification requires that a context property be present, it is not required that the value of the context property be processed using JSON-LD.

This is to support processing using plain JSON libraries, such as those that might be used when the verifiable credential is encoded as a JWT. All libraries or processors MUST ensure that the order of the values in the context property is what is expected for the specific application.

Libraries or processors that support JSON-LD can process the context property using full JSON-LD processing as expected. Implementations are expected to not use this URI for any other purpose, such as in pilot or production systems. This concept is further expanded on in Section 5. When expressing statements about a specific thing, such as a person, product, or organization, it is often useful to use some kind of identifier so that others can express statements about the same thing.

This specification defines the optional id property for such identifiers. The id property is intended to unambiguously refer to an object, such as a person, product, or organization. Using the id property allows for the expression of statements about specific things in the verifiable credential.

If the id property is present:. Developers should remember that identifiers might be harmful in scenarios where pseudonymity is required. Developers are encouraged to read Section 7. There are also other types of correlation mechanisms documented in Section 7. Privacy Considerations that create privacy concerns. Where privacy is a strong consideration, the id property MAY be omitted.

The example above uses two types of identifiers. The first identifier is for the verifiable credential and uses an HTTP-based URL.

The second identifier is for the subject of the verifiable credential the thing the claims are about and uses a decentralized identifier , also known as a DID. As of this publication, DIDs are a new type of identifier that are not necessary for verifiable credentials to be useful. Specifically, verifiable credentials do not depend on DIDs and DIDs do not depend on verifiable credentials.

However, it is expected that many verifiable credentials will use DIDs and that software libraries implementing this specification will probably need to resolve DIDs. DID -based URLs are used for expressing identifiers associated with subjects , issuers , holders , credential status lists, cryptographic keys, and other machine-readable information associated with a verifiable credential.

Software systems that process the kinds of objects specified in this document use type information to determine whether or not a provided verifiable credential or verifiable presentation is appropriate. This specification defines a type property for the expression of type information. Verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations MUST have a type property. That is, any credential or presentation that does not have type property is not verifiable , so is neither a verifiable credential nor a verifiable presentation.

With respect to this specification, the following table lists the objects that MUST have a type specified. The type system for the Verifiable Credentials Data Model is the same as for [ JSON-LD ] and is detailed in Section 5. When using a JSON-LD context see Section 5. While application developers and document authors do not need to understand the specifics of the JSON-LD type system, implementers of this specification who want to support interoperable extensibility, do.

All credentials , presentations , and encapsulated objects MUST specify, or be associated with, additional more narrow types like UniversityDegreeCredential , for example so software systems can process this additional information. When processing encapsulated objects defined in this specification, for example, objects associated with the credentialSubject object or deeply nested therein , software systems SHOULD use the type information specified in encapsulating objects higher in the hierarchy.

Specifically, an encapsulating object, such as a credential , SHOULD convey the associated object types so that verifiers can quickly determine the contents of an associated object based on the encapsulating object type.

For example, a credential object with the type of UniversityDegreeCredential , signals to a verifier that the object associated with the credentialSubject property contains the identifier for the:. This enables implementers to rely on values associated with the type property for verification purposes. The expectation of types and their associated properties should be documented in at least a human-readable specification, and preferably, in an additional machine-readable representation.

The type system used in the data model described in this specification allows for multiple ways to associate types with data. Implementers and authors are urged to read the section on typing in the Verifiable Credentials Implementation Guidelines [ VC-IMP-GUIDE ]. A verifiable credential contains claims about one or more subjects.

This specification defines a credentialSubject property for the expression of claims about one or more subjects. A verifiable credential MUST have a credentialSubject property. It is possible to express information related to multiple subjects in a verifiable credential. The example below specifies two subjects who are spouses. Note the use of array notation to associate multiple subjects with the credentialSubject property.

This specification defines a property for expressing the issuer of a verifiable credential. A verifiable credential MUST have an issuer property. It is also possible to express additional information about the issuer by associating an object with the issuer property:. jwk" or a DID for example, "did:example:abfe13fce12ecab". This specification defines the issuanceDate property for expressing the date and time when a credential becomes valid.

It is expected that the next version of this specification will add the validFrom property and will deprecate the issuanceDate property in favor of a new issued property.

The range of values for both properties are expected to remain as [ XMLSCHEMA ] combined date-time strings. Implementers are advised that the validFrom and issued properties are reserved and use for any other purpose is discouraged.

At least one proof mechanism, and the details necessary to evaluate that proof, MUST be expressed for a credential or presentation to be a verifiable credential or verifiable presentation ; that is, to be verifiable.

This specification identifies two classes of proof mechanisms: external proofs and embedded proofs. An external proof is one that wraps an expression of this data model, such as a JSON Web Token, which is elaborated on in Section 6. An embedded proof is a mechanism where the proof is included in the data, such as a Linked Data Signature, which is elaborated upon in Section 6. When embedding a proof, the proof property MUST be used. Because the method used for a mathematical proof varies by representation language and the technology used, the set of name-value pairs that is expected as the value of the proof property will vary accordingly.

For example, if digital signatures are used for the proof mechanism, the proof property is expected to have name-value pairs that include a signature, a reference to the signing entity, and a representation of the signing date. The example below uses RSA digital signatures. As discussed in Section 1. For more information about the proof mechanism, see the following specifications: Data Integrity [ DATA-INTEGRITY ], Linked Data Cryptographic Suites Registries [ LDP-REGISTRY ], and JSON Web Signature JWS Unencoded Payload Option [ RFC ].

This specification defines the expirationDate property for the expression of credential expiration information. It is expected that the next version of this specification will add the validUntil property in a way that deprecates, but preserves backwards compatibility with the expirationDate property.

Implementers are advised that the validUntil property is reserved and its use for any other purpose is discouraged. This specification defines the following credentialStatus property for the discovery of information about the current status of a verifiable credential , such as whether it is suspended or revoked.

The precise contents of the credential status information is determined by the specific credentialStatus type definition, and varies depending on factors such as whether it is simple to implement or if it is privacy-enhancing. Defining the data model, formats, and protocols for status schemes are out of scope for this specification. A Verifiable Credential Extension Registry [ VC-EXTENSION-REGISTRY ] exists that contains available status schemes for implementers who want to implement verifiable credential status checking.

Presentations MAY be used to combine and present credentials. They can be packaged in such a way that the authorship of the data is verifiable. The data in a presentation is often all about the same subject , but there is no limit to the number of subjects or issuers in the data. The aggregation of information from multiple verifiable credentials is a typical use of verifiable presentations.

A verifiable presentation is typically composed of the following properties:. The example below shows a verifiable presentation that embeds verifiable credentials.

The contents of the verifiableCredential property shown above are verifiable credentials , as described by this specification. The contents of the proof property are proofs, as described by the Data Integrity [ DATA-INTEGRITY ] specification.

An example of a verifiable presentation using the JWT proof mechanism is given in section 6. Some zero-knowledge cryptography schemes might enable holders to indirectly prove they hold claims from a verifiable credential without revealing the verifiable credential itself. In these schemes, a claim from a verifiable credential might be used to derive a presented value, which is cryptographically asserted such that a verifier can trust the value if they trust the issuer.

For example, a verifiable credential containing the claim date of birth might be used to derive the presented value over the age of 15 in a manner that is cryptographically verifiable. That is, a verifier can still trust the derived value if they trust the issuer. For an example of a ZKP-style verifiable presentation containing derived data instead of directly embedded verifiable credentials , see Section 5. Selective disclosure schemes using zero-knowledge proofs can use claims expressed in this model to prove additional statements about those claims.

For example, a claim specifying a subject's date of birth can be used as a predicate to prove the subject's age is within a given range, and therefore prove the subject qualifies for age-related discounts, without actually revealing the subject's birthdate. The holder has the flexibility to use the claim in any way that is applicable to the desired verifiable presentation. Building on the concepts introduced in Section 4.

Basic Concepts , this section explores more complex topics about verifiable credentials. Section 1. This section provides more detail about how the ecosystem is envisaged to operate. The roles and information flows in the verifiable credential ecosystem are as follows:. The order of the actions above is not fixed, and some actions might be taken more than once. Such action-recurrence might be immediate or at any later point.

This specification does not define any protocol for transferring verifiable credentials or verifiable presentations , but assuming other specifications do specify how they are transferred between entities, then this Verifiable Credential Data Model is directly applicable. This specification also does not define an authorization framework nor the decisions that a verifier might make after verifying a verifiable credential or verifiable presentation , taking into account the holder , the issuers of the verifiable credentials , the contents of the verifiable credentials , and its own policies.

In particular, Sections 5. Subject-Holder Relationships specify how a verifier can determine:. The verifiable credentials trust model is as follows:.

By decoupling the trust between the identity provider and the relying party a more flexible and dynamic trust model is created such that market competition and customer choice is increased. For more information about how this trust model interacts with various threat models studied by the Working Group, see the Verifiable Credentials Use Cases document [ VC-USE-CASES ].

The data model detailed in this specification does not imply a transitive trust model, such as that provided by more traditional Certificate Authority trust models. In the Verifiable Credentials Data Model, a verifier either directly trusts or does not trust an issuer.

While it is possible to build transitive trust models using the Verifiable Credentials Data Model, implementers are urged to learn about the security weaknesses introduced by broadly delegating trust in the manner adopted by Certificate Authority systems.

One of the goals of the Verifiable Credentials Data Model is to enable permissionless innovation. To achieve this, the data model needs to be extensible in a number of different ways. The data model is required to:. This approach to data modeling is often called an open world assumption , meaning that any entity can say anything about any other entity.

While this approach seems to conflict with building simple and predictable software systems, balancing extensibility with program correctness is always more challenging with an open world assumption than with closed software systems.

The rest of this section describes, through a series of examples, how both extensibility and program correctness are achieved. Let us assume we start with the verifiable credential shown below. This verifiable credential states that the entity associated with did:example:abcdef has a name with a value of Jane Doe.

Now let us assume a developer wants to extend the verifiable credential to store two additional pieces of information: an internal corporate reference number, and Jane's favorite food. After this JSON-LD context is created, the developer publishes it somewhere so it is accessible to verifiers who will be processing the verifiable credential.

jsonld , we can extend this example by including the context and adding the new properties and credential type to the verifiable credential. This example demonstrates extending the Verifiable Credentials Data Model in a permissionless and decentralized way.

The mechanism shown also ensures that verifiable credentials created in this way provide a mechanism to prevent namespace conflicts and semantic ambiguity. A dynamic extensibility model such as this does increase the implementation burden. Software written for such a system has to determine whether verifiable credentials with extensions are acceptable based on the risk profile of the application.

Some applications might accept only certain extensions while highly secure environments might not accept any extensions. These decisions are up to the developers of these applications and are specifically not the domain of this specification. Developers are urged to ensure that extension JSON-LD contexts are highly available. Implementations that cannot fetch a context will produce an error. Strategies for ensuring that extension JSON-LD contexts are always available include using content-addressed URLs for contexts, bundling context documents with implementations, or enabling aggressive caching of contexts.

Implementers are advised to pay close attention to the extension points in this specification, such as in Sections 4. While this specification does not define concrete implementations for those extension points, the Verifiable Credentials Extension Registry [ VC-EXTENSION-REGISTRY ] provides an unofficial, curated list of extensions that developers can use from these extension points.

This specification ensures that "plain" JSON and JSON-LD syntaxes are semantically compatible without requiring JSON implementations to use a JSON-LD processor. To achieve this, the specification imposes the following additional requirements on both syntaxes:.

A human-readable document describing the expected order of values for the context property is expected to be published by any implementer seeking interoperability.

A machine-readable description that is, a normal JSON-LD Context document is expected to be published at the URL specified in the context property by JSON-LD implementers seeking interoperability.

The requirements above guarantee semantic interoperability between JSON and JSON-LD for terms defined by the context mechanism. While JSON-LD processors will use the specific mechanism provided and can verify that all terms are correctly specified, JSON-based processors implicitly accept the same set of terms without testing that they are correct. In other words, the context in which the data exchange happens is explicitly stated for both JSON and JSON-LD by using the same mechanism.

With respect to JSON-based processors, this is achieved in a lightweight manner, without having to use JSON-LD processing libraries. Data schemas are useful when enforcing a specific structure on a given collection of data. There are at least two types of data schemas that this specification considers:. It is important to understand that data schemas serve a different purpose from the context property, which neither enforces data structure or data syntax, nor enables the definition of arbitrary encodings to alternate representation formats.

This specification defines the following property for the expression of a data schema, which can be included by an issuer in the verifiable credentials that it issues:. The credentialSchema property provides an opportunity to annotate type definitions or lock them to specific versions of the vocabulary.

Authors of verifiable credentials can include a static version of their vocabulary using credentialSchema that is locked to some content integrity protection mechanism. The credentialSchema property also makes it possible to perform syntactic checking on the credential and to use verification mechanisms such as JSON Schema [ JSON-SCHEMA ] validation.

In the example above, the issuer is specifying a credentialSchema , which points to a [ JSON-SCHEMA ] file that can be used by a verifier to determine if the verifiable credential is well formed. For information about linkages to JSON Schema [ JSON-SCHEMA ] or other optional verification mechanisms, see the Verifiable Credentials Implementation Guidelines [ VC-IMP-GUIDE ] document.

Data schemas can also be used to specify mappings to other binary formats, such as those used to perform zero-knowledge proofs. For more information on using the credentialSchema property with zero-knowledge proofs, see Section 5. In the example above, the issuer is specifying a credentialSchema pointing to a zero-knowledge packed binary data format that is capable of transforming the input data into a format, which can then be used by a verifier to determine if the proof provided with the verifiable credential is valid.

It is useful for systems to enable the manual or automatic refresh of an expired verifiable credential. For more information about expired verifiable credentials , see Section 4.

This specification defines a refreshService property , which enables an issuer to include a link to a refresh service. The issuer can include the refresh service as an element inside the verifiable credential if it is intended for either the verifier or the holder or both , or inside the verifiable presentation if it is intended for the holder only.

In the latter case, this enables the holder to refresh the verifiable credential before creating a verifiable presentation to share with a verifier. In the former case, including the refresh service inside the verifiable credential enables either the holder or the verifier to perform future updates of the credential.

The refresh service is only expected to be used when either the credential has expired or the issuer does not publish credential status information. Issuers are advised not to put the refreshService property in a verifiable credential that does not contain public information or whose refresh service is not protected in some way. Placing a refreshService property in a verifiable credential so that it is available to verifiers can remove control and consent from the holder and allow the verifiable credential to be issued directly to the verifier , thereby bypassing the holder.

Terms of use can be utilized by an issuer or a holder to communicate the terms under which a verifiable credential or verifiable presentation was issued. The issuer places their terms of use inside the verifiable credential. The holder places their terms of use inside a verifiable presentation. This specification defines a termsOfUse property for expressing terms of use information.

The value of the termsOfUse property tells the verifier what actions it is required to perform an obligation , not allowed to perform a prohibition , or allowed to perform a permission if it is to accept the verifiable credential or verifiable presentation. Further study is required to determine how a subject who is not a holder places terms of use on their verifiable credentials. One way could be for the subject to request the issuer to place the terms of use inside the issued verifiable credentials.

Another way could be for the subject to delegate a verifiable credential to a holder and place terms of use restrictions on the delegated verifiable credential. In the example above, the issuer the assigner is prohibiting verifiers the assignee from storing the data in an archive. Warning: The termsOfUse property is improperly defined within the VerifiablePresentation scoped context.

This is a bug with the version 1 context and will be fixed in the version 2 context. In the meantime, implementors who wish to use this feature will be required to extend the context of their verifiable presentation with an additional term that defines the termsOfUse property, which can then be used alongside the verifiable presentation type property, in order for the term to be semantically recognized in a JSON-LD processor. org from using the information provided to correlate the holder or subject using a third-party service.

If the verifier were to use a third-party service for correlation, they would violate the terms under which the holder created the presentation. This feature is also expected to be used by government-issued verifiable credentials to instruct digital wallets to limit their use to similar government organizations in an attempt to protect citizens from unexpected usage of sensitive data. Similarly, some verifiable credentials issued by private industry are expected to limit usage to within departments inside the organization, or during business hours.

Implementers are urged to read more about this rapidly evolving feature in the appropriate section of the Verifiable Credentials Implementation Guidelines [ VC-IMP-GUIDE ] document. Evidence can be included by an issuer to provide the verifier with additional supporting information in a verifiable credential. This could be used by the verifier to establish the confidence with which it relies on the claims in the verifiable credential.

For example, an issuer could check physical documentation provided by the subject or perform a set of background checks before issuing the credential.

In certain scenarios, this information is useful to the verifier when determining the risk associated with relying on a given credential. This specification defines the evidence property for expressing evidence information. For information about how attachments and references to credentials and non-credential data might be supported by the specification, see the Verifiable Credentials Implementation Guidelines [ VC-IMP-GUIDE ] document.

In this evidence example, the issuer is asserting that they physically matched the subject of the credential to a physical copy of a driver's license with the stated license number. This driver's license was used in the issuance process to verify that "Example University" verified the subject before issuance of the credential and how they did so physical verification.

The evidence property provides different and complementary information to the proof property. The evidence property is used to express supporting information, such as documentary evidence, related to the integrity of the verifiable credential.

In contrast, the proof property is used to express machine-verifiable mathematical proofs related to the authenticity of the issuer and integrity of the verifiable credential. For more information about the proof property , see Section 4. A zero-knowledge proof is a cryptographic method where an entity can prove to another entity that they know a certain value without disclosing the actual value.

A real-world example is proving that an accredited university has granted a degree to you without revealing your identity or any other personally identifiable information contained on the degree.

The key capabilities introduced by zero-knowledge proof mechanisms are the ability of a holder to:. This specification describes a data model that supports selective disclosure with the use of zero-knowledge proof mechanisms. The examples below highlight how the data model can be used to issue, present, and verify zero-knowledge verifiable credentials. For a holder to use a zero-knowledge verifiable presentation , they need an issuer to have issued a verifiable credential in a manner that enables the holder to derive a proof from the originally issued verifiable credential , so that the holder can present the information to a verifier in a privacy-enhancing manner.

This implies that the holder can prove the validity of the issuer's signature without revealing the values that were signed, or when only revealing certain selected values. The standard practice is to do so by proving knowledge of the signature, without revealing the signature itself.

There are two requirements for verifiable credentials when they are to be used in zero-knowledge proof systems.

The following example shows one method of using verifiable credentials in zero-knowledge. Some other cryptographic systems which rely upon zero-knowledge proofs to selectively disclose attributes can be found in the [ LDP-REGISTRY ] as well. The example above provides the verifiable credential definition by using the credentialSchema property and a specific proof that is usable in the Camenisch-Lysyanskaya Zero-Knowledge Proof system.

The next example utilizes the verifiable credential above to generate a new derived verifiable credential with a privacy-preserving proof. The derived verifiable credential is then placed in a verifiable presentation , so that the verifiable credential discloses only the claims and additional credential metadata that the holder intended. To do this, all of the following requirements are expected to be met:. Important details regarding the format for the credential definition and of the proofs are omitted on purpose because they are outside of the scope of this document.

The purpose of this section is to guide implementers who want to extend verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations to support zero-knowledge proof systems. There are at least two different cases to consider for an entity wanting to dispute a credential issued by an issuer :. The mechanism for issuing a DisputeCredential is the same as for a regular credential except that the credentialSubject identifier in the DisputeCredential property is the identifier of the disputed credential.

In the above verifiable credential the issuer is claiming that the address in the disputed verifiable credential is wrong. If a credential does not have an identifier, a content-addressed identifier can be used to identify the disputed credential.

Similarly, content-addressed identifiers can be used to uniquely identify individual claims. This area of study is rapidly evolving and developers that are interested in publishing credentials that dispute the veracity of other credentials are urged to read the section related to disputes in the Verifiable Credentials Implementation Guidelines [ VC-IMP-GUIDE ] document.

Verifiable credentials are intended as a means of reliably identifying subjects. While it is recognized that Role Based Access Controls RBACs and Attribute Based Access Controls ABACs rely on this identification as a means of authorizing subjects to access resources, this specification does not provide a complete solution for RBAC or ABAC.

Authorization is not an appropriate use for this specification without an accompanying authorization framework. The Working Group did consider authorization use cases during the creation of this specification and is pursuing that work as an architectural layer built on top of this specification.

The data model as described in Sections 3. Core Data Model , 4. Basic Concepts , and 5. Advanced Concepts is the canonical structural representation of a verifiable credential or verifiable presentation. All serializations are representations of that data model in a specific format. This section specifies how the data model is realized in JSON-LD and plain JSON.

Although syntactic mappings are provided for only these two syntaxes, applications and services can use any other data representation syntax such as XML, YAML, or CBOR that is capable of expressing the data model. As the verification and validation requirements are defined in terms of the data model, all serialization syntaxes have to be deterministically translated to the data model for processing, validation , or comparison. This specification makes no requirements for support of any specific serialization format.

The expected arity of the property values in this specification, and the resulting datatype which holds those values, can vary depending on the property. If present, the following properties are represented as a single value:.

All other properties, if present, are represented as either a single value or an array of values. The data model, as described in Section 3. Core Data Model , can be encoded in JavaScript Object Notation JSON [ RFC ] by mapping property values to JSON types as follows:. As the transformations listed herein have potentially incompatible interpretations, additional profiling of the JSON format is required to provide a deterministic transformation to the data model.

The syntax is designed to easily integrate into deployed systems already using JSON, and provides a smooth upgrade path from JSON to [ JSON-LD ]. It is primarily intended to be a way to use Linked Data in Web-based programming environments, to build interoperable Web services, and to store Linked Data in JSON-based storage engines.

Instances of the data model are encoded in [ JSON-LD ] in the same way they are encoded in JSON Section 6. The JSON-LD context is described in detail in the [ JSON-LD ] specification and its use is elaborated on in Section 5.

Multiple contexts MAY be used or combined to express any arbitrary information about verifiable credentials in idiomatic JSON.

In general, the data model and syntaxes described in this document are designed such that developers can copy and paste examples to incorporate verifiable credentials into their software systems.

The design goal of this approach is to provide a low barrier to entry while still ensuring global interoperability between a heterogeneous set of software systems. This section describes some of these approaches, which will likely go unnoticed by most developers, but whose details will be of interest to implementers. The most noteworthy syntactic sugars provided by [ JSON-LD ] are:. The data model described in this specification is designed to be proof format agnostic. This specification does not normatively require any particular digital proof or signature format.

While the data model is the canonical representation of a credential or presentation , the proofing mechanisms for these are often tied to the syntax used in the transmission of the document between parties.

As such, each proofing mechanism has to specify whether the verification of the proof is calculated against the state of the document as transmitted, against the possibly transformed data model, or against another form.

At the time of publication, at least two proof formats are being actively utilized by implementers and the Working Group felt that documenting what these proof formats are and how they are being used would be beneficial to implementers.

The sections detailing the current proof formats being actively utilized to issue verifiable credentials are:. JSON Web Token JWT [ RFC ] is still a widely used means to express claims to be transferred between two parties. Providing a representation of the Verifiable Credentials Data Model for JWT allows existing systems and libraries to participate in the ecosystem described in Section 1.

A JWT encodes a set of claims as a JSON object that is contained in a JSON Web Signature JWS [ RFC ] or JWE [ RFC ]. For this specification, the use of JWE is out of scope.

This specification defines encoding rules of the Verifiable Credential Data Model onto JWT and JWS. It further defines processing rules how and when to make use of specific JWT-registered claim names and specific JWS-registered header parameter names to allow systems based on JWT to comply with this specification. If these specific claim names and header parameters are present, their respective counterpart in the standard verifiable credential and verifiable presentation MAY be omitted to avoid duplication.

This specification introduces two new registered claim names, which contain those parts of the standard verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations where no explicit encoding rules for JWT exist. These objects are enclosed in the JWT payload as follows:. To encode a verifiable credential as a JWT, specific properties introduced by this specification MUST be either:.

If no explicit rule is specified, properties are encoded in the same way as with a standard credential , and are added to the vc claim of the JWT. As with all JWTs, the JWS-based signature of a verifiable credential represented in the JWT syntax is calculated against the literal JWT string value as presented across the wire, before any decoding or transformation rules are applied.

The following paragraphs describe these encoding rules. If a JWS is present, the digital signature refers either to the issuer of the verifiable credential , or in the case of a verifiable presentation , to the holder of the verifiable credential. The JWS proves that the iss of the JWT signed the contained JWT payload and therefore, the proof property can be omitted. If no JWS is present, a proof property MUST be provided.

The proof property can be used to represent a more complex proof, as may be necessary if the creator is different from the issuer , or a proof not based on digital signatures, such as Proof of Work. The issuer MAY include both a JWS and a proof property. For backward compatibility reasons, the issuer MUST use JWS to represent proofs based on a digital signature. For backward compatibility with JWT processors, the following registered JWT claim names MUST be used, instead of or in addition to, their respective standard verifiable credential counterparts:.

In bearer credentials and presentations , sub will not be present. Other JOSE header parameters and JWT claim names not specified herein can be used if their use is not explicitly discouraged. Additional verifiable credential claims MUST be added to the credentialSubject property of the JWT.

This version of the specification defines no JWT-specific encoding rules for the concepts outlined in Section Advanced Concepts for example, refreshService , termsOfUse , and evidence. These concepts can be encoded as they are without any transformation, and can be added to the vc JWT claim. Implementers are warned that JWTs are not capable of encoding multiple subjects and are thus not capable of encoding a verifiable credential with more than one subject.

JWTs might support multiple subjects in the future and implementers are advised to refer to the JSON Web Token Claim Registry for multi-subject JWT claim names or the Nested JSON Web Token specification. To decode a JWT to a standard credential or presentation , the following transformation MUST be performed:. To transform the JWT specific headers and claims , the following MUST be done:. In the example above, the verifiable credential uses a proof based on JWS digital signatures, and the corresponding verification key can be obtained using the kid header parameter.

In the example above, vc does not contain the id property because the JWT encoding uses the jti attribute to represent a unique identifier. The sub attribute encodes the information represented by the id property of credentialSubject. The nonce has been added to stop a replay attack. In the example above, the verifiable presentation uses a proof based on JWS digital signatures, and the corresponding verification key can be obtained using the kid header parameter.

In the example above, vp does not contain the id property because the JWT encoding uses the jti attribute to represent a unique identifier. verifiableCredential contains a string array of verifiable credentials using JWT compact serialization. This specification utilizes Linked Data to publish information on the Web using standards, such as URLs and JSON-LD, to identify subjects and their associated properties.

When information is presented in this manner, other related information can be easily discovered and new information can be easily merged into the existing graph of knowledge.

Linked Data is extensible in a decentralized way, greatly reducing barriers to large scale integration. The data model in this specification works well with Data Integrity and the associated Linked Data Cryptographic Suites which are designed to protect the data model as described by this specification. Unlike the use of JSON Web Token, no extra pre- or post-processing is necessary. The Data Integrity Proofs format was designed to simply and easily protect verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations.

Protecting a verifiable credential or verifiable presentation is as simple as passing a valid example in this specification to a Linked Data Signatures implementation and generating a digital signature. This section details the general privacy considerations and specific privacy implications of deploying the Verifiable Credentials Data Model into production environments.

It is important to recognize there is a spectrum of privacy ranging from pseudonymous to strongly identified. Depending on the use case, people have different comfort levels about what information they are willing to provide and what information can be derived from what is provided. For example, most people probably want to remain anonymous when purchasing alcohol because the regulatory check required is solely based on whether a person is above a specific age. Alternatively, for medical prescriptions written by a doctor for a patient, the pharmacy fulfilling the prescription is required to more strongly identify the medical professional and the patient.

Therefore there is not one approach to privacy that works for all use cases. Privacy solutions are use case specific. Even for those wanting to remain anonymous when purchasing alcohol, photo identification might still be required to provide appropriate assurance to the merchant. The merchant might not need to know your name or other details other than that you are over a specific age , but in many cases just proof of age might still be insufficient to meet regulations.

The Verifiable Credentials Data Model strives to support the full privacy spectrum and does not take philosophical positions on the correct level of anonymity for any specific transaction. The following sections provide guidance for implementers who want to avoid specific scenarios that are hostile to privacy. Data associated with verifiable credentials stored in the credential.

credentialSubject field is susceptible to privacy violations when shared with verifiers. Personally identifying data, such as a government-issued identifier, shipping address, and full name, can be easily used to determine, track, and correlate an entity.

Even information that does not seem personally identifiable, such as the combination of a birthdate and a postal code, has very powerful correlation and de-anonymizing capabilities. Implementers are strongly advised to warn holders when they share data with these kinds of characteristics. Issuers are strongly advised to provide privacy-protecting verifiable credentials when possible. For example, issuing ageOver verifiable credentials instead of date of birth verifiable credentials when a verifier wants to determine if an entity is over the age of Because a verifiable credential often contains personally identifiable information PII , implementers are strongly advised to use mechanisms while storing and transporting verifiable credentials that protect the data from those who should not access it.

Mechanisms that could be considered include Transport Layer Security TLS or other means of encrypting the data while in transit, as well as encryption or data access control mechanisms to protect the data in a verifiable credential while at rest. Subjects of verifiable credentials are identified using the credential. id field. The identifiers used to identify a subject create a greater risk of correlation when the identifiers are long-lived or used across more than one web domain.

Similarly, disclosing the credential identifier credential. id leads to situations where multiple verifiers , or an issuer and a verifier , can collude to correlate the holder. If holders want to reduce correlation, they should use verifiable credential schemes that allow hiding the identifier during verifiable presentation.

Such schemes expect the holder to generate the identifier and might even allow hiding the identifier from the issuer , while still keeping the identifier embedded and signed in the verifiable credential. If strong anti-correlation properties are a requirement in a verifiable credentials system, it is strongly advised that identifiers are either:.

The contents of verifiable credentials are secured using the credential. proof field. The properties in this field create a greater risk of correlation when the same values are used across more than one session or domain and the value does not change. Examples include the verificationMethod , created , proofPurpose , and jws fields. If strong anti-correlation properties are required, it is advised that signature values and metadata are regenerated each time using technologies like third-party pairwise signatures, zero-knowledge proofs, or group signatures.

Even when using anti-correlation signatures, information might still be contained in a verifiable credential that defeats the anti-correlation properties of the cryptography used. Verifiable credentials might contain long-lived identifiers that could be used to correlate individuals. These types of identifiers include subject identifiers, email addresses, government-issued identifiers, organization-issued identifiers, addresses, healthcare vitals, verifiable credential -specific JSON-LD contexts, and many other sorts of long-lived identifiers.

Organizations providing software to holders should strive to identify fields in verifiable credentials containing information that could be used to correlate individuals and warn holders when this information is shared.

There are mechanisms external to verifiable credentials that are used to track and correlate individuals on the Internet and the Web. Some of these mechanisms include Internet protocol IP address tracking, web browser fingerprinting, evercookies, advertising network trackers, mobile network position information, and in-application Global Positioning System GPS APIs.

Using verifiable credentials cannot prevent the use of these other tracking technologies. Also, when these technologies are used in conjunction with verifiable credentials , new correlatable information could be discovered. For example, a birthday coupled with a GPS position can be used to strongly correlate an individual across multiple websites. It is recommended that privacy-respecting systems prevent the use of these other tracking technologies when verifiable credentials are being used.

In some cases, tracking technologies might need to be disabled on devices that transmit verifiable credentials on behalf of a holder. To enable recipients of verifiable credentials to use them in a variety of circumstances without revealing more PII than necessary for transactions, issuers should consider limiting the information published in a credential to a minimal set needed for the expected purposes.

One way to avoid placing PII in a credential is to use an abstract property that meets the needs of verifiers without providing specific information about a subject. For example, this document uses the ageOver property instead of a specific birthdate, which constitutes much stronger PII. If retailers in a specific market commonly require purchasers to be older than a certain age, an issuer trusted in that market might choose to offer a verifiable credential claiming that subjects have met that requirement instead of offering verifiable credentials containing claims about specific birthdates.

This enables individual customers to make purchases without revealing specific PII. Privacy violations occur when information divulged in one context leaks into another. Accepted best practice for preventing such violations is to limit the information requested, and received, to the absolute minimum necessary.

This data minimization approach is required by regulation in multiple jurisdictions, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA in the United States and the General Data Protection Regulation GDPR in the European Union.

With verifiable credentials , data minimization for issuers means limiting the content of a verifiable credential to the minimum required by potential verifiers for expected use. For verifiers , data minimization means limiting the scope of the information requested or required for accessing services. For example, a driver's license containing a driver's ID number, height, weight, birthday, and home address is a credential containing more information than is necessary to establish that the person is above a certain age.

It is considered best practice for issuers to atomize information or use a signature scheme that allows for selective disclosure. For example, an issuer of driver's licenses could issue a verifiable credential containing every attribute that appears on a driver's license, as well as a set of verifiable credentials where every verifiable credential contains only a single attribute, such as a person's birthday.

It could also issue more abstract verifiable credentials for example, a verifiable credential containing only an ageOver attribute.

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Nowadays, there are only a few regulated Binary Options brokers. Most of them are unregulated. In different countries, there are different regulations. Before you sign up with a broker, you should check the regulation status in your country. A lot of brokers are blocking clients if it is not allowed to trade Binary Options in their country.

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There are different factors that influence your return:. Many beginners are using a martingale system or double-up strategy to recover losses. The idea is simple and has its history in the gambling scene. If you lose a bet you just double the investment amount. When trading binary options you have to invest more money than just double it to recover all losses.

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Web03/03/ · The type system for the Verifiable Credentials Data Model is the same as for and is detailed in Section Specifying the Type and Section 8: JSON-LD Grammar. When using a JSON-LD context (see Section Extensibility), this specification aliases the @type keyword to type to make the JSON-LD documents more easily understood. While WebGet your website and email up-and-running in minutes! or configuring your cloud email system for your business, our PapaSquad experts are here to help. Please don't hesitate to contact us with your questions! "So far you guys are the best hosting company among others I have been dealing with in the past 20 years, Hostpapa is the best." WebRequest Trial >> Are you a librarian, professor, or teacher looking for Questia School or other student-ready resources? Discover our premier periodical database Gale Academic OneFile WebRésidence officielle des rois de France, le château de Versailles et ses jardins comptent parmi les plus illustres monuments du patrimoine mondial et constituent la plus complète réalisation de l’art français du XVIIe siècle WebThe binary option always closes on a fixed expiration time. For example, you can trade seconds, seconds, or even 1-month Binary Options. For example, you can trade seconds, seconds, or even 1-month Binary Options WebGenerally however, a binary option is used for short term trading – usually under 30 minutes (5 minutes are the most popular). Longer term expiries – and the element of fixed risk – does make them useful tools for hedging or diversifying other holdings. Payouts change dependant on the asset and the expiry time ... read more

While slow to react to binary options initially, regulators around the world are now starting to regulate the industry and make their presence felt. For convenience, the base context is also provided in this section. For verifiers , data minimization means limiting the scope of the information requested or required for accessing services. Latest Trading Videos on YouTube. The evidence property provides different and complementary information to the proof property. Responsible brokers welcome regulation as a way to increase levels of consumer trust.

The Data Integrity Proofs format was designed to simply and easily protect verifiable credentials and verifiable presentations. When expressing statements about a specific thing, such as a person, product, best binary option system 5 minutes expiration, or organization, it is often useful to use some kind of identifier so that others can express statements about the same thing. As you see above, you can do 5 losing trades in a row and your account is gone. Linked content that exists outside a verifiable credentialsuch as images, JSON-LD Contexts, and other machine-readable data, are often not protected against tampering because the data resides outside of the protection of the proof on the verifiable credential. In the Verifiable Credentials Data Model, a verifier either directly trusts or does not trust an issuer. But pay attention to unregulated binary option brokers.

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